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Use this guide for help in your economics courses and assignments.

Citing Sources

This page provides resources and instruction on citing sources using the APA style.

You can also visit our citation style libGuide for more information.

Plagiarism: How to avoid it

This video from PALNI explains the difference between summary, paraphrasing, quoting, and plagiarism. 

APA Citations and Reference List Rules

The American Psychological Association Style (APA)

This style is used to cite sources in the social sciences disciplines. It uses the 6th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.

This guide provides examples for the most common sources and general notes on reference lists. For a more detailed citation guide see the Purdue OWL

Citation Examples:

Scholarly Article in a Journal Paginated by Issue

Basic Format 

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article. Title of JournalVolume(Issue), Pages.  Digital Object  Identifier / Retrieved from Database Name 


Scruton, R. (1996). The eclipse of listening. The New Criterion, 15 (30), 5-13. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database. 

Scholarly Article in a Journal Paginated by Volume

Basic Format 

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article. Title of JournalVolume, Pages.  Digital Object Identifier / 

Retrieved from Database Name  


Giersch, A., & Rhein, V. (2009). Lack of flexibility in visual grouping in patients with schizophrenia.  Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 

               117, 132-142. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.117.1.132   

Magazine Article

Basic Format 

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article. Title of Magazine, Volume(Issue) , Pages. Digital Object 

Identifier / Retrieved from Database Name  


(2009). Iran and America: An intersecting history. Newsweek153(22), 29-52. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database. 

Newspaper Article 

Use p. or pp. before page numbers.  Use p. for single-page articles.  Use pp. for multiple-page articles.

Basic Format 

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article.  Title of Newspaper, Pages.  Digital Object 

Identifier / Retrieved from Database Name


Belle, E. (2007, January 1). Furnishing drama on Bravo's 'Top Design'. Washington Post, The,  p. C07.

               Retrieved from Newspaper Source database. 


Basic Format 

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of book. Publisher City, Publisher State Abbreviation: Publisher. 


Levitt, S. D. & Dubner, S. J. (2005). Freakonomics: A rogue economist explores the hidden side of everything. New York, NY:

               William Morrow. 

Part of a Book (Such as an Essay in a Collection)

Use pp. before the page numbers of the specific essay or chapter.

Basic Format 

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of chapter. In A. A. Editor (Ed.), Title of book (pages of chapter). Publisher City, Publisher State Abbreviation:



O'Neil, J. M., & Egan, J. (1992). Men's and women's gender role journeys: Metaphor for healing, 

transition, and transformation. In B. R. Wainrib (Ed.), Gender issues across the 

life cycle (pp. 107-123). New York, NY: Springer. 

Web Site

Basic Format 

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of site. Retrieved from http://Web address 


Dominican University. (2009).  Brennan School of Business.  Retrieved from http// 

Article in a Web Periodical

Basic Format 

Author, A. A. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume . Digital Object 

Identifier / Retrieved from URL 


Williamson, V. J., McDonald, C., Deutsch, D., Griffiths, T. D., & Stewart, L. (2010). Faster decline 

of pitch memory over time in congenital amusia. Advances in Cognitive 

6. doi: 10.2478/v10053-008-0073-5 

General Formatting for Reference List:

   • Begin your reference list on a separate page at the end of your document under the label References.  Put the label at the center top of the page.  Do not bold, underline or use quotations marks in the label. 

   • Alphabetize the list of references by the first word in each entry (usually the author's last name.) 

   • Make the first line of each entry in your list flush with the margin.  Subsequent lines in each entry should be indented one-half inch.  This is known as a    hanging indent. 

   • Double space all entries, with no skipped spaces between entries. 

   • Capitalize only the first letter of the first word of a book, article or Web page title, the first word after a color or dash in the title, and proper    nouns. Capitalize all major words in journal titles.

   • If a reference has more than 7 authors, list the first 6 authors and then uses ellipses ( . . .) after the 6 thauthor’s name. List the last author’s name after    the ellipses. 

   • If an article that is available electronically has been assigned a DOI (digital object identifier), include the DOI in the citation. If no DOI has been    assigned, include the URL or library database information in the citation.This page was adapted from the Online Writing Lab at    Purdue( and from Helen Long's (Dominican University) APA handout.