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Use this guide for help with your philosophy courses and assignments.

Style Manual

Citation Style

Which style do I use?

Philosophy may use any humanities style, most likely Chicago or MLA Style, but always double check with your instructor if you are unsure of the correct style to use.

Basic Formats


Chicago Style Guide (PDF)

Hacker Guide to Chicago

Basic Formats

An article in a periodical (e.g., a journal, newspaper, or magazine)

Author(s). "Title of Article." Title of Source Day Month Year: pages.

A nonperiodical (e.g. a book)

Author(s). Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication.


MLA Style Guide

Basic Rules for Citations
• Authors' names are inverted (last name first); if a work has more than one author, invert only the first author's name, follow it with a comma, then continue listing the rest of the authors.
• If you have cited more than one work by a particular author, order them alphabetically by title, and use three hyphens in place of the author's name for every entry after the first.
• When an author appears both as the sole author of a text and as the first author of a group, list solo-author entries first.
• If no author is given for a particular work, alphabetize by the title of the piece and use a shortened version of the title for parenthetical citations.
• Capitalize each word in the titles of articles, books, etc. This rule does not apply to articles, short prepositions, or conjunctions unless one is the first word of the title or subtitle.
• Underline or italicize titles of books, journals, magazines, newspapers, and films.
• Use quotation marks around the titles of articles in journals, magazines, and newspapers. Also use quotation marks for the titles of short stories, book chapters, poems, and songs.
• If you're citing an article or a publication that was originally issued in print form but that you retrieved from an online database, you should provide enough information so that the reader can locate the article either in its original print form or retrieve it from the online database (if they have access).