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Health Sciences Research (Beginning) Workshop

This guide is designed to support and supplement to Health Sciences Research (Beginning) Workshop.

Citation Introduction

On this page, you will find a way to access a research guide specific to Citation Styles and a tutorial for using Zotero. Below these are a few important resources pulled from that Citation Styles research guide – why and when to cite and Style Guides for APA and AMA citation styles. These two citation styles are the most commonly used in the health sciences fields

Please do read through that other guide if you want more information. If you still have questions after that, feel free to reach out to library reference services, either through the methods outlined on under the Home tab or by walking in to the reference desk on the first floor of the library or to the desk of the reference assistant on the ground floor (by the café).

Why to Cite: Academic Integrity at Dominican

Academic Integrity Policy
Students of the university must conduct themselves in accordance with the highest standards of academic honesty and integrity.  Failure to maintain academic integrity will not be tolerated. The following definitions are provided for understanding and clarity.

Definitions of Plagiarism, Cheating, and Academic Dishonesty
Student plagiarism is the presentation of the writing or thinking of another as the student’s own. In written or oral work a student may make fair use of quotations, ideas, images, etc., that appear in others’ work only if the student gives appropriate credit to the original authors, thinkers, owners, or creators of that work. This includes material found on the internet and in electronic databases.

Cheating entails the use of unauthorized or prohibited aids in accomplishing assigned academic tasks. Obtaining unauthorized help on examinations, using prohibited notes on closed-note examinations, and depending on others for the writing of essays or the creation of other assigned work are all forms of cheating.

Academic dishonesty may also include other acts intended to misrepresent the authorship of academic work or to undermine the integrity of the classroom or of grades assigned for academic work. Deliberate acts threatening the integrity of library materials or the smooth operation of laboratories are among possible acts of academic dishonesty.

See the Undergraduate Bulletin or specific Graduate School policies for more information.

General Formatting for an AMA Works Cited List

Preparing a Works Cited List in AMA Style

General Formatting

  • References should be listed in numerical order at the end of a paper. 

  • References should be single-spaced within each listing and double-spaced between each listing.

  • References include all authors up to six authors. After the third author, include "et al".

  • List the authors' names in the order that they appear in the published source. This order is determined by their role in the research described in the article. Do not list the names alphabetically.

  • When listing an author's name, use the last name first, followed by the first and middle initials. There is no comma after the last name and no commas, spaces, or periods between first and middle initials.

  • With the exception of the first word and proper nouns, the title of an article should be in all lowercase letters.

  • Abbreviate periodical titles according to the US National Library of Medicine's catalog found at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nlmcatalog/journals (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.; if a title does not appear on these lists, abbreviate it according to the Construction of the National Library of Medicine Title Abbreviations Fact Sheet (https://www.nlm.nih.gov/pubs/factsheets/constructitle.html (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.).

  • One-word journal titles are written in full. Examples: Pediatrics, Cancer, Diabetes.

  • Periodical and book titles are italicized and capitalized.

  • For periodicals, there is no space between the year, the volume, or the page numbers.

  • Page numbers are always written as "257-259" not "257-59."

  • Website materials that are only online (i.e. not an online version of a journal or other print publication) should include author or organization, the title of the page, the URL, and the access date. The title should not be italicized.

  • Publication and update dates and access dates for Internet sites cited must be included. For example, Smith J. Risk Factors for Cancer. Cancer Risk Factors Web site. http://www.cancerriskfactors.gov. Published December 1, 2000. Updated January 15, 2008. Accessed February 1, 2008.

  • When a DOI is provided, use the DOI rather than the URL to cite. The DOI goes immediately after "doi:" and the accessed date is not required.

Formats & Examples

Books

Basic Format:
Author AA. Title of Book. Publisher city, Publisher state abbreviation: Publisher; Year.

Example:
Whitney E, Rolfes SR. Understanding Nutrition. 12th ed. Belmont, CA; Wadsworth; 2011.

Book Article or Chapter

Basic Format:
Author(s) AA. Article/chapter title. In: Author(s) or Editor(s) AA, ed. Title of book. Publisher city, Publisher state abbreviation: Publisher; Year: inclusive pages.

Example:
Lakhan SE,
Veira KF. Nutritional therapies for mental disorders. In: Coles L, ed. Functional Foods: The Connection Between Nutrition, Health, and Food Science. Toronto: Apple Academic Press; 2014:91-108.

Electronic books

Basic Format:
Author AA. Title of Book. Publisher City, Publisher State Abbreviation: Publisher; Year. URL. Access Date.

Example:
Randall, C. Water Economics. Boston, MA: Publications; 2009. ww.netlibrary.com. Accessed 12 November 2009.

Online Journal Articles (DOI)

Basic Format:
Author(s) AA. Article Title. Journal Name. year;vol(issue No.);inclusive pages. DOI.

Example:
Kitajima TS, Kawashima SA, Watanabe Y. The conserved
kinetochoreproteinshugoshin protects centromeric cohesion during meiosis. Nature. 2004;427(6974):510-517. doi:10.1038/nature02312.

Online Journal Articles (URL)

Basic Format:
Author(s) AA. Article Title. Journal Name. year;vol(issue No.):inclusive pages. URL. Published [date]. Updated [date]. Accessed [date].

Example:
Duchin JS. Can preparedness for biological terrorism save us from pertussis? Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2004;158(2):106-107. http://archpedi.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/158/2/106. Accessed June 1, 2004.

Scholarly Journal Articles

Basic Format:
Author(s) AA. Article Title. Journal Name. year;vol(issue No.):inclusive pages. 

Example:
Seagle HM, Strain GW, Makris A, Reeves RS.
Position of the American Dietetic Association: weight management. J Am Diet Assoc. 2009;109(2):330-346.

Web Sites

Basic Format:
Author AA. Title of article. Name of website.
Websiteurl. Access month date, year.

Example:
DeNoon DJ. FDA Panel Opposes New Type of Diabetes Drug. WebMD Web site. http://diabetes.webmd.com/news/20110719/fda-panel-9-6-no-vote-on-new-typediabetes-drug.  Accessed August 19, 2011.

Online Image

Basic Format:

Creator AA. Title of image (if known). Name of website. Website. URL. Published date. Accessed date. 

 Example: 

Jin, T. USDA Food Pyramid. Wikimedia Commons. Website. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:USDA_Food_Pyramid.gif. Published April 4, 2006. Accessed March 19, 2018. 

APA Citations and Reference List Rules

The American Psychological Association Style (APA)

This style is used to cite sources in the social sciences disciplines. It uses the 6th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.

This guide provides examples for the most common sources and general notes on reference lists. For a more detailed citation guide see the Purdue OWL

Citation Examples:

Scholarly Article in a Journal Paginated by Issue

Basic Format 

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article. Title of JournalVolume(Issue), Pages.  Digital Object  Identifier / Retrieved from Database Name 

Example 

Scruton, R. (1996). The eclipse of listening. The New Criterion, 15 (30), 5-13. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database. 

Scholarly Article in a Journal Paginated by Volume

Basic Format 

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article. Title of JournalVolume, Pages.  Digital Object Identifier / 

Retrieved from Database Name  


Example 

Giersch, A., & Rhein, V. (2009). Lack of flexibility in visual grouping in patients with schizophrenia.  Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 

               117, 132-142. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.117.1.132   

Magazine Article

Basic Format 

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article. Title of Magazine, Volume(Issue) , Pages. Digital Object 

Identifier / Retrieved from Database Name  


Example 

(2009). Iran and America: An intersecting history. Newsweek153(22), 29-52. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database. 

Newspaper Article 

Use p. or pp. before page numbers.  Use p. for single-page articles.  Use pp. for multiple-page articles.

Basic Format 

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article.  Title of Newspaper, Pages.  Digital Object 

Identifier / Retrieved from Database Name


Example 

Belle, E. (2007, January 1). Furnishing drama on Bravo's 'Top Design'. Washington Post, The,  p. C07.

               Retrieved from Newspaper Source database. 

Book

Basic Format 

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of book. Publisher City, Publisher State Abbreviation: Publisher. 

Example 

Levitt, S. D. & Dubner, S. J. (2005). Freakonomics: A rogue economist explores the hidden side of everything. New York, NY:

               William Morrow. 

Part of a Book (Such as an Essay in a Collection)

Use pp. before the page numbers of the specific essay or chapter.


Basic Format 

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of chapter. In A. A. Editor (Ed.), Title of book (pages of chapter). Publisher City, Publisher State Abbreviation:

               Publisher. 

Example 

O'Neil, J. M., & Egan, J. (1992). Men's and women's gender role journeys: Metaphor for healing, 

transition, and transformation. In B. R. Wainrib (Ed.), Gender issues across the 

life cycle (pp. 107-123). New York, NY: Springer. 

Web Site

Basic Format 

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of site. Retrieved from http://Web address 

Example 

Dominican University. (2009).  Brennan School of Business.  Retrieved from http//www.dom.edu/academics/bsb/index.htm 

Article in a Web Periodical

Basic Format 

Author, A. A. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume . Digital Object 

Identifier / Retrieved from URL 
 

Example 

Williamson, V. J., McDonald, C., Deutsch, D., Griffiths, T. D., & Stewart, L. (2010). Faster decline 

of pitch memory over time in congenital amusia. Advances in Cognitive 

Psychology
6. doi: 10.2478/v10053-008-0073-5 

General Formatting for Reference List:

   • Begin your reference list on a separate page at the end of your document under the label References.  Put the label at the center top of the page.  Do not bold, underline or use quotations marks in the label. 

   • Alphabetize the list of references by the first word in each entry (usually the author's last name.) 

   • Make the first line of each entry in your list flush with the margin.  Subsequent lines in each entry should be indented one-half inch.  This is known as a    hanging indent. 

   • Double space all entries, with no skipped spaces between entries. 

   • Capitalize only the first letter of the first word of a book, article or Web page title, the first word after a color or dash in the title, and proper    nouns. Capitalize all major words in journal titles.

   • If a reference has more than 7 authors, list the first 6 authors and then uses ellipses ( . . .) after the 6 thauthor’s name. List the last author’s name after    the ellipses. 

   • If an article that is available electronically has been assigned a DOI (digital object identifier), include the DOI in the citation. If no DOI has been    assigned, include the URL or library database information in the citation.This page was adapted from the Online Writing Lab at    Purdue( http://owl.english.purdue.edu) and from Helen Long's (Dominican University) APA handout.