On this page, you will find a way to access a research guide specific to Citation Styles and a tutorial for using Zotero. Below these are a few important resources pulled from that Citation Styles research guide – why and when to cite and Style Guides for APA and AMA citation styles. These two citation styles are the most commonly used in the health sciences fields
Please do read through that other guide if you want more information. If you still have questions after that, feel free to reach out to library reference services, either through the methods outlined on under the Home tab or by walking in to the reference desk on the first floor of the library or to the desk of the reference assistant on the ground floor (by the café).
Preparing a Works Cited List in AMA Style
References should be listed in numerical order at the end of a paper.
References should be single-spaced within each listing and double-spaced between each listing.
References include all authors up to six authors. After the third author, include "et al".
List the authors' names in the order that they appear in the published source. This order is determined by their role in the research described in the article. Do not list the names alphabetically.
When listing an author's name, use the last name first, followed by the first and middle initials. There is no comma after the last name and no commas, spaces, or periods between first and middle initials.
With the exception of the first word and proper nouns, the title of an article should be in all lowercase letters.
Abbreviate periodical titles according to the US National Library of Medicine's catalog found at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nlmcatalog/journals; if a title does not appear on these lists, abbreviate it according to the Construction of the National Library of Medicine Title Abbreviations Fact Sheet (https://www.nlm.nih.gov/pubs/factsheets/constructitle.html).
One-word journal titles are written in full. Examples: Pediatrics, Cancer, Diabetes.
Periodical and book titles are italicized and capitalized.
For periodicals, there is no space between the year, the volume, or the page numbers.
Page numbers are always written as "257-259" not "257-59."
Website materials that are only online (i.e. not an online version of a journal or other print publication) should include author or organization, the title of the page, the URL, and the access date. The title should not be italicized.
Publication and update dates and access dates for Internet sites cited must be included. For example, Smith J. Risk Factors for Cancer. Cancer Risk Factors Web site. http://www.cancerriskfactors.gov. Published December 1, 2000. Updated January 15, 2008. Accessed February 1, 2008.
When a DOI is provided, use the DOI rather than the URL to cite. The DOI goes immediately after "doi:" and the accessed date is not required.
Formats & Examples
Author AA. Title of Book. Publisher city, Publisher state abbreviation: Publisher; Year.
Whitney E, Rolfes SR. Understanding Nutrition. 12th ed. Belmont, CA; Wadsworth; 2011.
Book Article or Chapter
Author(s) AA. Article/chapter title. In: Author(s) or Editor(s) AA, ed. Title of book. Publisher city, Publisher state abbreviation: Publisher; Year: inclusive pages.
Lakhan SE,Veira KF. Nutritional therapies for mental disorders. In: Coles L, ed. Functional Foods: The Connection Between Nutrition, Health, and Food Science. Toronto: Apple Academic Press; 2014:91-108.
Author AA. Title of Book. Publisher City, Publisher State Abbreviation: Publisher; Year. URL. Access Date.
Randall, C. Water Economics. Boston, MA: Publications; 2009. ww.netlibrary.com. Accessed 12 November 2009.
Online Journal Articles (DOI)
Author(s) AA. Article Title. Journal Name. year;vol(issue No.);inclusive pages. DOI.
Kitajima TS, Kawashima SA, Watanabe Y. The conservedkinetochoreproteinshugoshin protects centromeric cohesion during meiosis. Nature. 2004;427(6974):510-517. doi:10.1038/nature02312.
Online Journal Articles (URL)
Author(s) AA. Article Title. Journal Name. year;vol(issue No.):inclusive pages. URL. Published [date]. Updated [date]. Accessed [date].
Duchin JS. Can preparedness for biological terrorism save us from pertussis? Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2004;158(2):106-107. http://archpedi.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/158/2/106. Accessed June 1, 2004.
Scholarly Journal Articles
Author(s) AA. Article Title. Journal Name. year;vol(issue No.):inclusive pages.
Seagle HM, Strain GW, Makris A, Reeves RS.Position of the American Dietetic Association: weight management. J Am Diet Assoc. 2009;109(2):330-346.
Author AA. Title of article. Name of website.Websiteurl. Access month date, year.
DeNoon DJ. FDA Panel Opposes New Type of Diabetes Drug. WebMD Web site. http://diabetes.webmd.com/news/20110719/fda-panel-9-6-no-vote-on-new-typediabetes-drug. Accessed August 19, 2011.
Creator AA. Title of image (if known). Name of website. Website. URL. Published date. Accessed date.
Jin, T. USDA Food Pyramid. Wikimedia Commons. Website. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:USDA_Food_Pyramid.gif. Published April 4, 2006. Accessed March 19, 2018.
The American Psychological Association Style (APA)
This style is used to cite sources in the social sciences disciplines. It uses the 6th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.
This guide provides examples for the most common sources and general notes on reference lists. For a more detailed citation guide see the Purdue OWL
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume(Issue), Pages. Digital Object Identifier / Retrieved from Database Name
Scruton, R. (1996). The eclipse of listening. The New Criterion, 15 (30), 5-13. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database.
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume, Pages. Digital Object Identifier /
Retrieved from Database Name
Giersch, A., & Rhein, V. (2009). Lack of flexibility in visual grouping in patients with schizophrenia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology,
117, 132-142. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.117.1.132
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article. Title of Magazine, Volume(Issue) , Pages. Digital Object
Identifier / Retrieved from Database Name
(2009). Iran and America: An intersecting history. Newsweek, 153(22), 29-52. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database.
Use p. or pp. before page numbers. Use p. for single-page articles. Use pp. for multiple-page articles.
Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper, Pages. Digital Object
Identifier / Retrieved from Database Name
Belle, E. (2007, January 1). Furnishing drama on Bravo's 'Top Design'. Washington Post, The, p. C07.
Retrieved from Newspaper Source database.
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of book. Publisher City, Publisher State Abbreviation: Publisher.
Levitt, S. D. & Dubner, S. J. (2005). Freakonomics: A rogue economist explores the hidden side of everything. New York, NY:
Use pp. before the page numbers of the specific essay or chapter.
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of chapter. In A. A. Editor (Ed.), Title of book (pages of chapter). Publisher City, Publisher State Abbreviation:
O'Neil, J. M., & Egan, J. (1992). Men's and women's gender role journeys: Metaphor for healing,
transition, and transformation. In B. R. Wainrib (Ed.), Gender issues across the
life cycle (pp. 107-123). New York, NY: Springer.
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of site. Retrieved from http://Web address
Dominican University. (2009). Brennan School of Business. Retrieved from http//www.dom.edu/academics/bsb/index.htm
Article in a Web Periodical
Author, A. A. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume . Digital Object
Identifier / Retrieved from URL
Williamson, V. J., McDonald, C., Deutsch, D., Griffiths, T. D., & Stewart, L. (2010). Faster decline
of pitch memory over time in congenital amusia. Advances in Cognitive
Psychology, 6. doi: 10.2478/v10053-008-0073-5
General Formatting for Reference List:
• Begin your reference list on a separate page at the end of your document under the label References. Put the label at the center top of the page. Do not bold, underline or use quotations marks in the label.
• Alphabetize the list of references by the first word in each entry (usually the author's last name.)
• Make the first line of each entry in your list flush with the margin. Subsequent lines in each entry should be indented one-half inch. This is known as a hanging indent.
• Double space all entries, with no skipped spaces between entries.
• Capitalize only the first letter of the first word of a book, article or Web page title, the first word after a color or dash in the title, and proper nouns. Capitalize all major words in journal titles.
• If a reference has more than 7 authors, list the first 6 authors and then uses ellipses ( . . .) after the 6 thauthor’s name. List the last author’s name after the ellipses.
• If an article that is available electronically has been assigned a DOI (digital object identifier), include the DOI in the citation. If no DOI has been assigned, include the URL or library database information in the citation.This page was adapted from the Online Writing Lab at Purdue( http://owl.english.purdue.edu) and from Helen Long's (Dominican University) APA handout.
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