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This article provides an overview of the practice and study of civil resistance. First, historical roots of modern civil resistance are discussed, including the emergence in the 19th century of mass-based campaigns of non-cooperation to promote nationalist and labor interests, as well as the significance of Mohandas Gandhi and the widespread use of nonviolent resistance in the 20th century. Second, perspectives of scholars of social movements and revolution are compared with those of scholars who focus more specifically on nonviolent resistance. Despite studying much of the same phenomena, separate literatures have developed that are ripe for cross-fertilization and synthesis. In the third section, a literature review is organized around three key concepts for understanding civil resistance: mobilization, resilience, and leverage. Fourth, consequences of nonviolent resistance relative to violent resistance are discussed. Finally, areas for future research are identified.
The events of the Arab Spring of 2011 have made clear the importance and potential efficacy of nonviolent resistance, as well as the field's inability to explain the onset and outcome of major nonviolent uprisings. Until recently, conflict scholars have largely ignored nonviolent resistance. This issue features new theoretical and empirical explorations of the causes and consequences of nonviolent resistance, stressing the role that unarmed, organized civilians can play in shaping the course of conflicts. Contributors demonstrate the importance of treating nonviolent and violent strategies, as well as conventional politics strategies, as alternative choices for engaging the state, show how gender ideology can influence which opposition groups use nonviolent resistance, and suggest that the causes of civil war and nonviolent resistance often differ.
The article analyzes the role of social media in facilitating activism and reviews and evidence and argumentation provided by the three camps called the slacktivists, the paradigm shifters and the facilitators. It also examines the motives behind social media usage and the manner they are used amid protests, demonstrations and occupations.
The author examines five social studies/American history textbooks to analyze how they each portray, approach, and/or discuss the movements and historical figures that have served as "freedom fighters" throughout American history. She discusses the history of protest movements and spotlights former professional football player Colin Kaepernick.
By following a six-month moving account of protest communications from June to December 2019, this paper examines instances of strategic communications that conferred leverage to the Hong Kong protesters. This details the use of narratives for solidarity, which culminated in a discernible shift in the attitudes of Hong Kongers as compared to prior protests. Later, it explores how the pro-democracy group demonstrated context analysis in issue framing. Finally, it discusses the messaging used to maintain a precarious balance between non-violent protesters and violent flanks
The article discusses the challenges to civil resistance in the world. Topics discussed include the current condition of nonviolent civil society resistance in the West Bank in Israel and Palestine, association with violent insurgents, and monolithic repressive power structure. Also being discussed is the problem of communication, leverage, and discipline in managing repression.