Black powder, the world's first chemical explosive, was originally developed in the seventh century, during China's Tang dynasty. It was a crude mixture at first, but over time chemists discovered the optimum proportion of sulfur, charcoal, and nitrates, as well as the best way to mix them so that the particles of each component were tiny and homogenous, resulting in a complete and powerful reaction. Author and chemistry buff Simon Quellen Field takes readers on a decades-long journey through the history of things that go boom , from the early days of black powder to today's modern plastic explosives. Not just the who, when, and why, but also the how. How did Chinese alchemists come to create black powder? What accidents led to the discovery of high explosives? How do explosives actually work on a molecular scale? And though most people have a vague understanding that dynamite is more powerful than gunpowder, what does it mean to be more powerful? Boom! The Chemistry and History of Explosives goes back to the original papers and patents written by the chemists who invented them, to shed light on their development, to explore the consequences of their use for good and ill, and to give the reader a basic understanding of the chemistry that makes them possible.
This fascinating new volume provides a comprehensive yet concise overview of the chemical aspects of some of the major innovations and changes that occurred during the 20th century, relating chemical structures and properties to real-life applications. Developed for a course taught by the author for several years at UVA, the author covers the important and consequential developments in chemistry and explains their everyday, real-life applications. These include such topics as consumer products, fossil fuel use, polymers, agriculture, food production, nutrition, explosives, and drugs. The section Molecular Biology and Its Applications includes examples of the application of biotechnology and genetic engineering.
The Great Lakes--Erie, Huron, Michigan, Ontario, and Superior--hold 20 percent of the world's supply of surface fresh water and provide sustenance, work, and recreation for tens of millions of Americans. But they are under threat as never before, and their problems are spreading across the continent. The Death and Life of the Great Lakes is prize-winning reporter Dan Egan's compulsively readable portrait of an ecological catastrophe happening right before our eyes, blending the epic story of the lakes with an examination of the perils they face and the ways we can restore and preserve them for generations to come.
From water, air, and fire to tennessine and oganesson, celebrated science writer Philip Ball leads us through the full sweep of the field of chemistry in this exquisitely illustrated history of the elements. The Elements is a stunning visual journey through the discovery of the chemical building blocks of our universe. By piecing together the history of the periodic table, Ball explores not only how we have come to understand what everything is made of, but also how chemistry developed into a modern science. Ball groups the elements into chronological eras of discovery, covering seven millennia from the first known to the last named. As he moves from prehistory and classical antiquity to the age of atomic bombs and particle accelerators, Ball highlights images and stories from around the world and sheds needed light on those who struggled for their ideas to gain inclusion. By also featuring some elements that aren't true elements but were long thought to be--from the foundational prote hyle and heavenly aetherof the ancient Greeks to more recent false elements like phlogiston and caloric--The Elements boldly tells the full history of the central science of chemistry.
An in-depth look at how elements are discovered, why they matter and where they will take us. The science of element discovery is a truly fascinating field, and is constantly rewriting the laws of chemistry and physics as we know them.Superheavy is the first book to take an in-depth look at how synthetic elements are discovered, why they matter and where they will take us. From the Cold War nuclear race to the present day, scientists have stretched the periodic table to 118 elements. They have broken the rules of the periodic table, rewriting the science we're taught in school, and have the potential to revolutionize our lives. Kit Chapman takes us back to the very beginning, with the creation of the atomic bomb. He tells the story of the major players, such as Ernest Lawrence who revolutionized the field of particle physics with the creation of the cyclotron; Yuri Oganessian, the "guerilla scientist" who opened up a new era of discovery in the field and is the only living scientists to have an element named after him; and Victor Ninov, the disgraced physicist who almost pulled off the greatest fraud in nuclear science. This book will bring us in a full circle back to Oak Ridge National Laboratory, where the first atomic bomb was developed, and that has more recently been an essential player in creating the new superheavy element 117. Throughout,Superheavyexplains the complex science of element discovery in clear and easy-to-follow terms. It walks through the theories of atomic structure, discusses the equipment used and explains the purpose of the research. By the end of the book readers will not only marvel at how far we've come, they will be in awe of where we are going and what this could mean for the worlds of physics and chemistry as we know them today.
A unique book detailing the impact of food adulteration, food toxicity and packaging on our nutritional balance, as well as presenting and analyzing technological advancements such as the uses of green solvents with sensors for non-destructive quality evaluation of food. Food Chemistry: The Role of Additives, Preservatives and Adulteration is designed to present basic information on the composition of foods and the chemical and physical changes that their characteristics undergo during processing, storage, and handling. Details concerning recent developments and insights into the future of food chemical risk analysis are presented, along with topics such as food chemistry, the role of additives, preservatives, and food adulteration, food safety objectives, risk assessment, quality assurance, and control. Moreover, good manufacturing practices, food processing systems, design and control, and rapid methods of analysis and detection are covered, as well as sensor technology, environmental control, and safety. The book also presents detailed information about the chemistry of each major class of food additive and their multiple functionalities. In addition, numerous recent findings are covered, along with an explanation of how their quality is ascertained and consumer safety ensured. Audience The core audience of this book include food technologists, food chemists, biochemists, biotechnologists, food, and beverage technologists, and nanoscientists working in the field of food chemistry, food technology, and food and nanoscience. In addition, R&D experts, researchers in academia and industry working in food science/safety, and process engineers in industries will find this book extremely valuable.
Provides practical guidance on pharmaceutical analysis, written by leading experts with extensive industry experience Analytical Testing for the Pharmaceutical GMP Laboratory presents a thorough overview of the pharmaceutical regulations, working processes, and drug development best practices used to maintain the quality and integrity of medicines. With a focus on smaller molecular weight drug substances and products, the book provides the knowledge necessary for establishing the pharmaceutical laboratory to support Quality Systems while maintaining compliance with Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) regulations. Concise yet comprehensive chapters contain up-to-date coverage of drug regulations, pharmaceutical analysis methodologies, control strategies, testing development and validation, method transfer, electronic data documentation, and more. Each chapter includes a table of contents, definitions of acronyms, a reference list, and ample tables and figures. Addressing the principal activities and regulatory challenges of analytical testing in the development and manufacturing of pharmaceutical drug products, this authoritative resource: Describes the structure, roles, core guidelines, and GMP regulations of the FDA and ICH. Covers the common analytical technologies used in pharmaceutical laboratories, including examples of analytical techniques used for the release and stability testing of drugs. Examines control strategies established from quality systems supported by real-world case studies. Explains the use of dissolution testing for products such as extended-release capsules, aerosols, and inhalers. Discusses good documentation and data reporting practices, stability programs, and the Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS) to maintain compliance. Includes calculations, application examples, and illustrations to assist readers in day-to-day laboratory operations. Contains practical information and templates to structure internal processes or common Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs).
An indispensable guide for all synthetic chemists who want to learn about the most relevant reactions and reagents employed to synthesize important heterocycles and drugs! The synthesis of natural products, bioactive compounds, pharmaceuticals, and drugs is of fundamental interest in modern organic chemistry. New reagents and reaction methods towards these molecules are being constantly developed. By understanding the mechanisms involved and scope and limitations of each reaction applied, organic chemists can further improve existing reaction protocols and develop novel efficient synthetic routes towards frequently used drugs, such as Aspirin or Penicillin. Applied Organic Chemistry provides a summary of important (name) reactions and reagents applied in modern organic chemistry and drug synthesis. It covers rearrangement, condensation, olefination, metathesis, aromatic electrophilic substitutions, Pd-catalyzed C-C bond forming reactions, multi-component reactions, as well as oxidations and reductions. Each chapter is clearly structured, providing valuable information on reaction details, step-by-step mechanism, experimental procedures, applications, and (patent) references. By providing mechanistic information and representative experimental procedures, this book is an indispensable guide for researchers and professionals in organic chemistry, natural product synthesis, pharmaceutical, and medicinal chemistry, as well as post-graduates preparing themselves for a job in the pharmaceutical industry. Hot Topic: Reviews important classes of organic reactions (incl. name reactions) and reagents in medicinal chemistry. Useful: Provides information on reaction details, common reagents, and functional group transformations used to synthesize natural products, bioactive compounds, drugs, and pharmaceuticals, e.g. Aspirin, Penicillin. Unique: For every reaction the mechanism is explained step by step, and representative experimental procedures are given, unlike most books in this area. User-friendly: Chapters are clearly structured making it easy for the reader to compare different reactions. Applied Organic Chemistry is an indispensable guide for researchers and professionals in organic chemistry, natural product synthesis, pharmaceutical, and medicinal chemistry, as well as post-graduates preparing themselves for a job in the pharmaceutical industry.
In view of their promising biological and pharmaceutical activities, natural product inspired and heterocyclic compounds have recently gained a reputation in the field of medicinal chemistry. Over the past decades, intensive research efforts have been ongoing to understand the synthesis, biochemistry and engineering involved in their preparation and action mechanisms. Several novel natural product derivatives, heterocyclic and other synthetic compounds, have been reported to have shown interesting biological activities including anticancer, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anti-glycemic, anti-allergy and antiviral etc. Chemistry of Biologically Potent Natural Products and Synthetic Compounds provides up-to-date information on new developments and most recent medicinal applications of the natural products and derivatives, as well as the chemistry and synthesis of heterocyclic and other related compounds.
This book is a hands-on guide for the organic chemist. Focusing on the most reliable and useful reactions, the chapter authors provide the information necessary for a chemist to strategically plan a synthesis, as well as repeat the procedures in the laboratory. Consolidates all the key advances/concepts in one book, covering the most important reactions in organic chemistry, including substitutions, additions, eliminations, rearrangements, oxidations, reductions Highlights the most important reactions, addressing basic principles, advantages/disadvantages of the methodology, mechanism, and techniques for achieving laboratory success Features new content on recent advances in CH activation, photoredox and electrochemistry, continuous chemistry, and application of biocatalysis in synthesis Revamps chapters to include new and additional examples of chemistry that have been demonstrated at a practical scale
Atomic Symmetry Groups, being continuous groups, are just a fallout of the Lie Groups and Lie Algebras. Atoms are structurally simpler than molecules but atomic symmetry is more complex than molecular symmetry. In quantum mechanics we study atoms first and then the molecules. In symmetry studies, we do just the reverse. In this book, apart from theories, the description of both the symmetry groups - atomic and molecular, are attended with adequate applications. Please note: Taylor & Francis does not sell or distribute the Hardback in India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka.
Chemistry enables our eyes to detect the world around us; it determines whether something tastes sweet or sour; it helps genetic information pass accurately from one generation to the next. Ultimately, chemistry powers life itself. We don't need to dig very deep to answer the question: why dobiologists need chemistry?Building on the success of the first three editions, Chemistry for the Biosciences introduces students to all the chemistry they need to understand the biological world. Renowned for its clear and straightforward explanations, the book uses everyday examples and analogies throughout to help studentsget to grips with chemical concepts, and presents them in context of biological systems wherever possible so they can see how chemistry relates to their wider studies.With topics drawn from organic, physical, and inorganic chemistry, students will encounter a broad range of essential concepts. Chemistry for the Biosciences includes many learning features - both in print and online - to help students grasp these concepts as quickly and thoroughly as possible. Fromthe self-check questions throughout each chapter to help consolidate learning, to the Chemical Toolkits and Maths Tools that help students explore terminology, methods, and numerical skills that may be unfamiliar, the book is written to be a true course companion for students on biological andbiomedical science degrees - one that will help them not only remember the essentials, but really understand them, setting students up for success in their later studies.Digital formats and resourcesThe fourth edition is available for students and institutions to purchase in a variety of formats, and is supported by online resources.- The ebook offers a mobile experience and convenient access along with functionality tools, navigation features, and links that offer extra learning support: www.oxfordtextbooks.co.uk/ebooks- The extensive online resources feature:For registered adopters:Figures from the book in electronic format, ready to download;A test bank of questions, with feedback linked to the text.Multiple-choice questions to aid exam preparation and revision;Full solutions to self-check questions;Data analysis and numerical practice worksheets;Links to YouTube video tutorials that provide fuller explanations of a range of numerical concepts.
Chemistry is often seen as a difficult subject to understand. This book focusses on the triangle model that Alex H. Johnstone developed in the early 1980s. Originally conceived in the context of making chemistry more accessible to a wider range of learners, the model has been applied in almost every area of education in chemistry at all stages of learning. In looking at why chemistry is difficult, there are two central questions. Firstly, does the problem relate to the nature of chemistry and, secondly, does it relate to the way humans gain understanding? Both were found to be important and the answers to the two question were found to be connected. The triangle model arose from sustained research into human learning. The central finding from research is the critical role of working memory and the model rationalises so much evidence from chemistry education research as well as the repeated experiences of teachers of chemistry at all levels. In order to understand chemistry, it is essential to develop sound mental models of molecular reality. It generates major implications for the way a chemistry curriculum should be constructed and the processes of teaching and learning in chemistry when the goal is focussed on understanding the key ideas. Some of these implications are developed and pointers offered to more successful ways forward. The power of the Johnstone Triangle lies in the way it offers clear directions for all involved in chemistry education. It is hoped that this book will prove helpful to all involved in sharing the exciting story of the way humans have come to understand the molecular world, one of the great examples of great human endeavour.
This book is a marked departure from typical introductory geochemistry books available: It provides a simple, straightforward, applied, and down-to-earth no-nonsense introduction to geochemistry. It is for the undergraduate students who are introduced to the subject for the first time, but also for practicing geologists who do not need the heavy-duty theory, but some clear, simple, and useful practical tips and pointers. This book, written from the point of view of a practicing geologist, introduces the fundamental and most relevant principles of geochemistry, explaining them whenever possible in plain terms. Crucially, this textbook covers - in a single volume! - practical and useful topics that other introductory geochemistry books ignore, such as sampling and sample treatment, analytical geochemistry, data treatment and geostatistics, classification and discrimination diagrams, geochemical exploration, and environmental geochemistry. The main strengths of this book are the breadth of useful and practical topics, the straightforward and approachable way in which it is written, the numerous real-world and specific geological examples, and the exercises and review questions (using real-world data and providing on-line answers). It is therefore easily understood by the beginner geochemist or any geologist who desires to use geochemistry in their daily work.
Residues offers readers a new approach for conceptualizing the environmental impacts of chemicals production, consumption, disposal, and regulation. Environmental protection regimes tend to be highly segmented according to place, media, substance, and effect; academic scholarship often reflects this same segmented approach. Yet, in chemical substances we encounter phenomena that are at once voluminous and miniscule, singular and ubiquitous, regulated yet unruly. Inspired by recent studies of materiality and infrastructures, we introduce "residual materialism" as a framework for attending to the socio-material properties of chemicals and their world-making powers. Tracking residues through time, space, and understanding helps us see how the past has been built into our present chemical environments and future-oriented regulatory systems, why contaminants seem to always evade control, and why the Anthropocene is as inextricably harnessed to the synthesis of carbon into new molecules as it is driven by carbon's combustion.
"One smart book...delving deep into the history and implications of a daily act that dare not speak its name."--Newsweek Bodily waste is common to all and as natural as breathing. We prefer not to talk about it, but we should--even those of us who take care of our business in pristine, sanitary conditions. Disease spread by bodily waste kills more people worldwide every year than any other single cause of death. Even in the United States, nearly two million people have no access to an indoor toilet, while the sewers of major cities worldwide are an infrastructure disaster waiting to happen. With razor-sharp wit and crusading urgency, mixing levity with gravity, Rose George's The Big Necessity breaks the silence, turning the taboo subject into a cause with the most serious of consequences.
Scholastic Discover More is a revolutionary new nonfiction line pairing stunning print books with corresponding interactive digital books that extend the learning online. THE ELEMENTS unlocks a free 64-page digital companion book, ELEMENTS COLLECTOR, offering even more information, photos, and videos! Discovering the elements is discovering life itself. What are we made of? What keeps us and our universe in motion? Everything we are, and see around us, and create, is made up of a little over 90 elements, many of which have existed since the beginning of time and space. This book is more than a walk through the periodic table. It explains the tremendous forces of star birth and death that create elements. It chronicles the history of their discovery and the impact of their science on every aspect of our daily lives, from medicine to technology, architecture to the environment. Beautiful photographs and modern graphics make apparently ordinary substances, their extraction and their changes look as extraordinary as they truly are.
An Instant #1 New York Times Bestseller Soon to be adapted at Netflix for TV with President Barack Obama and Michelle Obama's production company, Higher Ground. "One of this year's most buzzed about young adult novels." --Good Morning America A TIME Magazine Best YA Book of All Time Selection Amazon's Best YA Book of 2021 So Far (June 2021) A 2021 Kids' Indie Next List Selection An Entertainment Weekly Most Anticipated Books of 2021 Selection A PopSugar Best March 2021 YA Book Selection With four starred reviews, Angeline Boulley's debut novel, Firekeeper's Daughter, is a groundbreaking YA thriller about a Native teen who must root out the corruption in her community, perfect for readers of Angie Thomas and Tommy Orange. Eighteen-year-old Daunis Fontaine has never quite fit in, both in her hometown and on the nearby Ojibwe reservation. She dreams of a fresh start at college, but when family tragedy strikes, Daunis puts her future on hold to look after her fragile mother. The only bright spot is meeting Jamie, the charming new recruit on her brother Levi's hockey team. Yet even as Daunis falls for Jamie, she senses the dashing hockey star is hiding something. Everything comes to light when Daunis witnesses a shocking murder, thrusting her into an FBI investigation of a lethal new drug. Reluctantly, Daunis agrees to go undercover, drawing on her knowledge of chemistry and Ojibwe traditional medicine to track down the source. But the search for truth is more complicated than Daunis imagined, exposing secrets and old scars. At the same time, she grows concerned with an investigation that seems more focused on punishing the offenders than protecting the victims. Now, as the deceptions--and deaths--keep growing, Daunis must learn what it means to be a strong Anishinaabe kwe (Ojibwe woman) and how far she'll go for her community, even if it tears apart the only world she's ever known.
Cool enough for kids to savor, scientific enough to be an invaluable resource, this is the most comprehensive book on food and nutrition ever created for kids (and that's a tall order). We all know that food rules -- most of us plan our entire day around it -- but how much do we really understand about what our bodies need to keep them going? Expertly organized, with enough fascinating information for many sittings, Food Rules! invites readers to dig into hundreds of mouth-watering stories, jokes, recipes, rumors, and facts. Inspired by a passion for food and goofball humor, science writer Bill Haduch weaves his completely up-to-date nutritional research and insights through a supermarket of zany illustrations by Rick Stromoski. Their goal: better eating through laughter. Ooh! Sounds messy....
Marie Curie's story has fascinated and inspired young readersdecades. The poor Polish girl who worked eight years to be ableto afford to attend the Sorbonne in Paris became one of themost important scientists of her day, winning not one but twoNobel Prizes. Her life is a fascinating one, filled with hard work,humanitarianism, and tragedy. Her work with her husband,Pierre - the study of radioactivity and the discovery of theelements radium and polonium - changed science forever. Butshe is less well known for her selfless efforts during World Warto establish mobile X-ray units so that wounded French soldierscould get better care faster. When she stood to profit greatlyfrom her scientific work, she chose not to, making her methodsand findings known and available to all of science. As a result,this famous woman spent most of her life in need of money,often to buy the very elements she discovered.Marie Curie's life and work are given a fresh telling, one thatalso explores the larger picture of the effects of radium in worldculture, and its exploitation and sad misuse.