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Teaching & Learning LibGuide

Resources for Dominican Faculty on teaching techniques and ideologies.


Metacognition refers to the higher order cognitive thoughts that coordinate proficient information processing. The study of metacognition has largely focused on memory, such as the processes by which we regulate cognition in order to improve our memory. Nelson and Narens (1990) present a framework of metacognition consisting of two flows of information between the object level (the stimulus in the environment) and the meta-level (the mental representation) of the item. These flows are monitoring (where the object level informs the meta-level) and control (where the meta-level modifies the object level). For instance, when studying for an exam, we will have an idealized notion of performance (at the meta-level) and we will have some to-be-learned material (at the object level). We will monitor our learning of the material and control it through allocating more or less study or effort. Thus, through metacognition, we will reflect on our performance and modify behaviour accordingly, terminating study when monitoring tells us that information is well learnt.

Derived from Credo Reference Source.