The American Psychological Association Style (APA)
This style is used to cite sources in the social sciences disciplines. It uses the 6th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.
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This guide provides examples for the most common sources and general notes on reference lists. For a more detailed citation guide see the Purdue OWL
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume(Issue), Pages. Digital Object Identifier / Retrieved from Database Name
Scruton, R. (1996). The eclipse of listening. The New Criterion, 15 (30), 5-13. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database.
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume, Pages. Digital Object Identifier /
Retrieved from Database Name
Giersch, A., & Rhein, V. (2009). Lack of flexibility in visual grouping in patients with schizophrenia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology,
117, 132-142. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.117.1.132
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article. Title of Magazine, Volume(Issue) , Pages. Digital Object
Identifier / Retrieved from Database Name
(2009). Iran and America: An intersecting history. Newsweek, 153(22), 29-52. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database.
Use p. or pp. before page numbers. Use p. for single-page articles. Use pp. for multiple-page articles.
Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper, Pages. Digital Object
Identifier / Retrieved from Database Name
Belle, E. (2007, January 1). Furnishing drama on Bravo's 'Top Design'. Washington Post, The, p. C07.
Retrieved from Newspaper Source database.
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of book. Publisher City, Publisher State Abbreviation: Publisher.
Levitt, S. D. & Dubner, S. J. (2005). Freakonomics: A rogue economist explores the hidden side of everything. New York, NY:
Use pp. before the page numbers of the specific essay or chapter.
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of chapter. In A. A. Editor (Ed.), Title of book (pages of chapter). Publisher City, Publisher State Abbreviation:
O'Neil, J. M., & Egan, J. (1992). Men's and women's gender role journeys: Metaphor for healing,
transition, and transformation. In B. R. Wainrib (Ed.), Gender issues across the
life cycle (pp. 107-123). New York, NY: Springer.
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of site. Retrieved from http://Web address
Dominican University. (2009). Brennan School of Business. Retrieved from http//www.dom.edu/academics/bsb/index.htm
Article in a Web Periodical
Author, A. A. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume . Digital Object
Identifier / Retrieved from URL
Williamson, V. J., McDonald, C., Deutsch, D., Griffiths, T. D., & Stewart, L. (2010). Faster decline
of pitch memory over time in congenital amusia. Advances in Cognitive
Psychology, 6. doi: 10.2478/v10053-008-0073-5
General Formatting for Reference List:
• Begin your reference list on a separate page at the end of your document under the label References. Put the label at the center top of the page. Do not bold, underline or use quotations marks in the label.
• Alphabetize the list of references by the first word in each entry (usually the author's last name.)
• Make the first line of each entry in your list flush with the margin. Subsequent lines in each entry should be indented one-half inch. This is known as a hanging indent.
• Double space all entries, with no skipped spaces between entries.
• Capitalize only the first letter of the first word of a book, article or Web page title, the first word after a color or dash in the title, and proper nouns. Capitalize all major words in journal titles.
• If a reference has more than 7 authors, list the first 6 authors and then uses ellipses ( . . .) after the 6 thauthor’s name. List the last author’s name after the ellipses.
• If an article that is available electronically has been assigned a DOI (digital object identifier), include the DOI in the citation. If no DOI has been assigned, include the URL or library database information in the citation.This page was adapted from the Online Writing Lab at Purdue( http://owl.english.purdue.edu) and from Helen Long's (Dominican University) APA handout.
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